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If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. No cover image. Read preview. Synopsis Drawing on the new intellectual frameworks of critical pedagogy, feminism and postmodernism and their impact upon educational theory, practice and research, the book focuses on the changing contexts of adult education. Sissel; Phyllis M. Cunningham Bergin and Garvey, Read preview Overview.

Merriam Jossey Bass, Tisdell Jossey Bass, Whatever Happened to Postmodernism in Higher Education?

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Journal of Higher Education, Vol. Postmodernism, Baby, Yeah! By Times Higher Education, No. Modernism, however, planted the seeds of its own undoing. Postmodernists offer some good critiques of humanism, progress, and autonomous reason. More importantly, Enlightenment rationalists have never demonstrated that human reason can arrive at ultimate truths without divine revelation. As Christians, we have never accepted the modernist claim that technological advancement and human reason will solve all social problems.

Atheistic existentialist writers such as Nietzsche and Sartre prepared the way for contemporary postmodernism. They realized the modernist rejection of the transcendent was a costly proposition because it annihilated all standards of objective morality, human value, and truth.

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  7. Postmodern openness to spirituality may seem like a positive step away from modernist naturalism, but this kind of spirituality is inherently anti-Christian because it considers the Christian message like all world views true only for those who accept it as such. Rather than see humans as individual rational selves, as modernists held, postmodernists think of humans as extensions of culture. They deny the individual self altogether. All intrinsic properties of the human being, along with moral worth and personal commitment, are lost from view. Our outlooks and perceptions are all the result of our enculturation.

    Peter Berger explains what is called sociology of knowledge — the idea that all knowledge is the product of our culture and language:. A thought of any kind is grounded in society. The individual, then, derives his worldview socially in very much the same way that he derives his roles and his identity.

    In other words, his emotions and his self-interpretation like his actions are predefined for him by society, and so is his cognitive approach to the universe that surrounds him. Rather than conceiving the mind as a mirror of nature, postmodernists argue that we bend nature through the lens of culture and language.

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    To know objectively we would have to transcend our cultural lens, and according to postmodernists, this is impossible. Indeed, postmodernists reject the whole language of truth and reality in favor of literary terms like narrative and story. Postmodernists hold that when modernists or religionists advance objective truth, they do violence by excluding other voices; that is, they regard other world views to be invalid.

    کتاب Adult Education and the Postmodern Challenge

    The dogmatist , the totalizer , the absolutist is both naive and dangerous, not to mention arrogant. Instead of one truth, we have many truths. Openness without the restraint of reason along with tolerance without moral appraisal are the new postmodern mandates. Therefore, rejecting the content of faith means rejecting the person who constructed that truth.

    Truth now means personal preference and personal empowerment.

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    Striving together to discover truth through debate and spirited discussion is definitely out. Consider current opinion about the religions of the world. Few people understand much about them. Yet most people believe they all teach pretty much the same thing. Only one out of every six adults strongly disagreed with this view. America today is a religious smorgasbord.

    An impressive majority of Americans believe that truth is relative. Still fewer have any clue about how their beliefs relate to their own lives in a practical way. In general, people are more ideologically confused than they are deeply committed to their convictions. As a result, while we hear the rhetoric of openness to everything and tolerance for everyone, we rarely find anyone who really understands what this means.

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    5. Relativism is just the socially appropriate attitude of the hour. Postmodern ideologues have successfully transformed ideology into popular zeitgeist. Ironically, in an age of antidogmatism, this radical subjectivity leads to the dangerously arrogant inference that people can never be wrong about what they believe. If we are free from the constraints of rationality, nothing separates truth from self-delusion. The age of antidogmatism ends up being the age of anti-intellectualism. Truth has been replaced, especially among many academics, by politically empowering narrative. In the postmodern climate of openness and tolerance, beliefs become barriers against genuine dialogue about spiritual and moral truth.

      For example, political correctness advocates, such as Stanley Fish, have argued that since all speech is a political power play, ideas must be monitored and managed, not rationally and constructively engaged. History offers a warning that such antirational dogmatism can exact a high price. Both reject objective truth; both assert that there is no essential human nature or inherent human rights; both celebrate the substitution of power for truth.

      Interestingly, major contributors to the development of postmodern ideology, such as Martin Heidegger and Paul de Mann, were deeply committed fascists. Since faith is rooted in the practical matters of personal taste and experience, people tend to adopt and abandon beliefs according to the demands of the moment. Today evangelical Christians stand at a greater distance from those with whom we communicate than we did just 20 years ago. Today, this is much less frequently the case. Before we can broach the question of whether the Christian gospel is true, we have to establish that such a thing as truth exists.

      To bridge the gap between ourselves and postmodern thinkers, we need to introduce additional steps in the communication process. At some point, you would probably interrupt that villager. This is why success in crosscultural communication requires more patience and care in approaching each discussion. Crosscultural missionaries may spend years learning the language and culture of those to whom they minister. Meanwhile, careless communicators are rarely successful in a crosscultural context, and they menace the ministry of other Christians as they blithely offend people in the name of Christ.

      Similarly, if we are to be successful communicators with postmodern people, including our own children and their friends, we will have to understand the postmodern outlook. It has to work. Our message is unique, not because it leads to the most far-out spiritual experience, but because it is true. See also Acts The day we dispense with reason is the same day we dispense with truth. After all, if one proposition can be true, and its opposite is also true, what is a lie? It is true regardless of what we think.

      But this sort of truth, objective truth, cannot exist apart from rational categories. Of course, we are not suggesting that Christians merely offer objective truth while witnessing. We believe that relationship is more important than ever in a postmodern world. Demonstrating Christian love, Christlike lives, and experiencing the power of God are extremely important today, but these should supplement and illustrate the truth of the gospel, not replace it. At Xenos Fellowship, we too have been struggling with the riddle of dialogue with postmodern culture. We have had some success and can suggest some promising directions for Christians to explore.

      Dialogue — specifically raising questions — is more palatable to postmodern hearers than authoritative declarations. Later, when they are more able to hear and think, we need to call them to moral and intellectual accountability to God. But again, we need extra steps before we reach that point. Next, we need a strategy intended to move postmodern thinkers to the point where traditional pleas and arguments will finally take effect. Then comes the time to supply the Christian alternative.

      When talking to members of postmodern culture, we find that few fully comprehend the bases for their views. Therefore, we aim to help them understand their own views, along with some of the problems inherent in those views. Your white workmate is helping an African-American workmate to unravel a problem in the computer database. She looks up with hurt on her face.

      You denounce the white worker for being prejudiced and for hurting her feelings. Your other friend at work announces she is getting divorced. She has fallen in love with another man, and although she has two children, she has told her husband she cannot continue to live a lie. Her husband and children are crushed, but she feels she must be true to herself.

      Most postmodern-influenced thinkers will be more willing to approve passing judgment in scenario no. Both judgments involve someone hurting the feelings of another. At the same time, though people might have resented the racial epithet on the left no. Why the difference between today and 30 years ago? Postmodern thinkers invariably respond that judgments have changed because morality is not objective, but a product of cultural paradigms.

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      Or was it wrong, but they just thought it was o. This question causes postmodern thinkers to be confused. If they say it was really all right to call someone by this name at one time, they are condoning the racism of the past. But if they say people only thought it was all right, they are suggesting that a universal standard of right and wrong exists.

      Either position contradicts central postmodern assumptions.